I received one of the most depressing pieces of mail I’ve ever encountered on Tuesday.
I should set the stage by mentioning that I’ve recently had occasion to think about prison reform in the US. I was invited to a meeting by Open Society Institute in New York which looked at some length at the problems of America’s criminal justice system: extremely high rates of incarceration, huge racial disparities in sentencing, and the fact that six of ten African-American high school dropouts ended up in prison by their 30s. Prison reform was a major focus for my father when he was a lawyer with the New York Legal Aid Society, where he primarily defended indigent defendents who had violated the terms of their parole.
I was reading the new study from the JFA Institute titled “Unlocking America“. (A warning – the study is available only as a badly formatted PDF, which lacks key graphs, totals 4.6mb for 40 pages of text, and doesn’t print on my printer. But hey, it’s still worth reading.) The study, authored by several professors of criminology, makes the argument that incarceration isn’t working in America, or at least, isn’t working the way we’d want it to be. Prison populations continue to grow dramatically despite the fact that crime rates have decreased since 1992. (The US is the world’s leader jailer, in both absolute and percentage terms, outdistancing stiff competition from China and Russia, and exceeding incarceration rates of Apartheid-era South Africa.) The study’s authors argue that the increase of prison population is due to a set of “tough on crime” laws passed in the 1970s and 80s that have reduced judge’s flexibility in sentencing and resulted in longer sentences and more court-mandated supervision after release.
While these measures, they argue, don’t meaningfully affect crime rates, they have enormous implications for communities where large numbers of people end up locked out of the workforce due to criminal records, lose the right to vote and have children raised in single-parent (or grandparent) households due to incarcerated parents. Furthermore, the huge costs of keeping indiciduals in prison reduces the amount of tax dollars available to improve life in high crime communities. (Projects like the Justice Mapping Center have done amazing work visualizing the incredible costs associated with incarceration in some neighborhoods and the strong correlation between high incarceration neighborhoods and inadequate social services.)
The report’s authors argue that reducing the massive US prison population requires reforms including:
– the reduction of the length of sentences
– the elimination of prison sentences for “technical offenses” in violating parole or probation. (More than half of all inmates in state prisons have violated parole. More than half of these have committed “technical violations”, which can include missing appointments with parole officers, failing drug tests or failing to pay supervision fees.)
– the reduction of time under parole or probation supervision
– decriminalization of victimless crimes like gambling, prostitution and recreational drug use
– improving prison conditions
– restoring voting rights for convicted felons.
All of which are likely great recommendations, but few of which I can imagine influencing policy debates in the US in the near future. Prison reform hasn’t been one of the hot talking points in the democratic primaries, and it’s hard to imagine Republican candidates who’ve expressed their desire to “double Guantanamo” having serious conversations about improving conditions in US prisons.
So this topic was on my mind when I opened my mail at Berkman and received the report “Cruel and Unusual: Sentencing 13- and 14-Year-Old Children to Die in Prison” from the Equal Justice Initiative, an Alabama-based human rights group led by the remarkable Bryan Stephenson, a law professor at NYU. Let’s quickly unpack the report’s title – the children in question aren’t sentenced to execution – they’re sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole. There’s aren’t a ton of them – EJI has documented 73 cases of children who are imprisoned until their death based on crimes they were convicted of committing when they were 13 or 14 years old. But the simple fact that children are imprisoned for life based on crimes committed when they were 14 years old or younger is difficult to process.
The EJI report does an excellent job of putting faces on statistics, telling the stories of the children who are now imprisoned for life. One in particular has stuck with me. Antonio NuÃ±ez was 14 years old, drunk and high at a party, when he got into a car with two men who were nearly twice his age. The driver got into a car chase with police and fired shots; the other adult in the car claimed that he’d been kidnapped by the driver. While no one was injured in the chase, the State of California charged NuÃ±ez with aggravated kidnapping, and sentenced him to life in prison without parole, the same sentence the 29-year old driver received.
Antonio NuÃ±ez, right. The youngest person in the US to be sentenced to life in prison for a crime where no one was killed or injured.
Bad things happen to children when you put them in prison with adults. They get raped five times as often as they do in juvenile detention facilities. A substantial proportion of the 73 children documented in the JFI report have attempted suicide. Ian Manuel, sentenced to life in prison for a violent mugging he committed when he was 13, has spent the majority of his life in solitary confinement in a Florida prison. He attempted suicide five times last year.
A broader study, carried out by he University of San Francisco’s Center for Law & Global Justice found 2,387 serving life without parole across the US. 51% of these youth were first-time offenders. 13 states allow youth to be sentenced to life without parole at any age – other states set minimums from age 8 to 14. The US is the only country that allows a 13-year old to be sentenced to life in prison – the punishment is forbidden by the Convention on the Rights of the Child (ratified by all nations except the US and Somalia) forbids it.
In many cases, judges don’t want to impose these sentences – they are required to by mandatory minimum sentence laws. In a large number of cases, the children were represented by deeply incompetent counsel, including counsel who failed to appeal convictions.
The reason this report was so horrific wasn’t the realization that there are 73 people who will die in prison for crimes committed as children. It was the realization that EJI was focusing the campaign on these 73 kids because they belive it might be winnable. In other words, a broader campaign to advocate for all 2,387 sentenced to life in prison while juveniles probably wouldn’t be winnable. And a campaign against the idea of life without parole certainly wouldn’t be winnable in a country where the death penalty is authorized in 38 states and the sentence is offered as a less punitive measure.
The realization that sent me reeling was that EJI’s campaign on this issue is likely to be an uphill battle. The state of Pennsylvania has sentenced 18 children to life in prison for crimes committed when the offender was 13 or 14 – it’s an issue that’s surely been considered in that state’s criminal justice community previously. While it seems impossible for me to find arguments that imprisoning a 13 year old for life is a good idea, I know that people are willing to make these arguments (and perhaps someone will make them in the comments thread.)
While fighting for a reform in sentencing that offers the possibility of parole for people convicted of crimes when they were 14 or under is a battle worth fighting, I’m having a hard time believing that it’s a battle we have to fight. And I wonder what the odds of winning the sorts of reforms advocated in the Unlocking America report are if it’s a battle to fight for the rights of young and badly disadvantaged children who’ve committed crimes.
Then again, it’s very hard to believe that the “debate” on torture in the US has descended to the point where major media outlets won’t call waterboarding “torture”. Or that Amnesty International believes (correctly, I suspect) that they need to show us a performance artist holding the stress positions authorized in CIA interrogation manuals to remind us that stress positions are torture. They do. And EJI needs to force Americans to wrestle with the idea that we imprison 13 year-olds for life before we can wrestle with the implications of imprisoning nearly 1% of our citizens.